Selected Bibliographic and Source Material


An Aqueduct for Gotham

“Friends of the Old Croton Aqueduct.” Accessed February 24, 2016.

Koeppel, Gerard T. Water for Gotham: A History. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2001.


A Rural Cemetery

CUNY Virtual New York:

Heaton, Claude Edwin. “Yellow Fever in New York City.” Bulletin of the Medical Library Association, April 1946.

McDonnell, Tim. “5 New York Epidemics That Were Way Worse Than Ebola Will Be.” Mother Jones, October 44, 2014

Stillman, John. “For $350K You Can Spend an Eternity in Manhattan.” Gothamist, June 30, 2015.

Young, Greg. “Manhattan’s Forgotten Graveyards, Under Public Parks, Famous Hotels and Supermarkets.” Huffington Post, October 20, 2012.


Black History Unearthed

African Burial Ground National Monument, and National Park Service. “The Archaeology of African Burial Ground National Monument, New York,”

Medford, Edna Greene, ed. New York African Burial Ground History Final Report. Washington DC: Howard University, 2004.

“New York African Burial Ground Archaeology Final Report Series, Volumes 1 to 4.” Accessed February 24, 2016.

“New York African Burial Ground Skeletal Biology Final Report Series, Volumes 1 and 2.” Accessed February 24, 2016.


Building the Brooklyn Bridge

“City of New York Department of Transportation – Brooklyn Bridge.” Accessed February 24, 2016.

The Great Bridge, 2012.


Clandestine Abortionist

Brodie, Janet Farrell. Contraception and Abortion in Nineteenth-Century America. Cornell University Press, 1997.

Browne, Junius Henri. The Great Metropolis: A Mirror of New York: A Complete History of Metropolitan Life and Society, with Sketches of Prominent Places, Persons and Things in the City as They Actually Exist. Hartford [Conn.] : American Pub. Co., 1869.

Burrows, Edwin G., and Mike Wallace. Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898. Oxford University Press, 2000.

Huntington, Frederic Dan. Restel’s Secret Life: A True History of Her from Birth to Her Awful Death by Her Own Wicked Hands. Philadelphia : The Old Franklin Publishing House, 1897.

“Madame Restell in Prison.” The Sun, July 20, 1848.

Restell, Madame, and New York (State). Court of General Sessions (New York County). Wonderful Trial of Caroline Lohman, Alias Restell: With Speeches of Counsel, Charge of Court, and Verdict of Jury: Reported in Full for the National Police Gazette. New York : Burgess, Stringer, 1847.

“Restell’s Suicide: She Cuts Her Throat from Ear to Ear.” The Boston Globe, April 2, 1878.

“Searching the Den of an Abortionist.” The New York Times, August 30, 1871.

“The Belle of Sodom: How the Woman Restell Met Her End.” The Daily Constitution, April 3, 1878.


Dental School

Peck, Sheldon. “Dentist, artist, pioneer: Orthodontic innovatory Norman Kingsley and his Rembrandt portraits.” The Journal of the American Dental Association, April 2012.


Factory Fire Horror

“100 Years Later, the Roll of the Dead in a Factory Fire Is Complete.” The New York Times, February 20, 2011.

“141 Men and Girls Die in Waist Factory Fire; Trapped High Up In Washington Place Building; Street Strewn with Bodies; Piles of Dead Inside.” The New York Times, March 26, 1911.

“New York Fire Kills 148.” Chicago Sunday Tribune, March 26, 1911.

“PBS – Triangle Fire.” American Experience. Accessed February 24, 2016.

“Preliminary Report of the Fire Investigating Commission.” Accessed February 24, 2016.

Shepherd, William. “Testimonial – Eyewitness at the Triangle.” Cornell University – The Triangle Factory Fire. Accessed February 25, 2016.

“Stories of Survivors. And Witnesses and Rescuers Outside Tell What They Saw.” The New York Times, March 26, 1911.

“The Triangle Factory Fire – Leon Stein Interviews – Cornell University.” Accessed February 24, 2016.


Ginsing in Gotham

Duval, Margaret Louise. Healers and Health Care Decision Makers in New York’s Chinatown. University Microfilms, 1984.

Kinkead, Gwen. Chinatown: A Portrait of a Closed Society. HarperCollins, 1992.

New York Botanical Garden. Bulletin of the New York Botanical Garden. Lancaster, Pa. : New Era Printing Co., 1900.


Harlem Hospital

“Backgrounder on Harlem Hospital.” Accessed February 24, 2016.

“Harlem Group’s Push to Curb Infant Mortality Prompts National Action.” theGrio. Accessed February 24, 2016.

Pogrebin, Robin. “Murals at Harlem Hospital Get a New Life.” The New York Times, September 16, 2012.


 Heat Wave 1896

Haby, Jeff. “Global Climate Change Impacts in the U.S.” Accessed February 24, 2016.

Kohn, Edward P. “The Scourge of Summer.” New York Archives Trust 8, no. 1 (2008): 8–11.


Infamous Lung Block

 New York Department of Health. Brief History of the Campaign Against Tuberculosis in New York City: Catalogue of the Tuberculosis Exhibit of the Department of Health, City of New York, 1908, 1908.

Poole, Ernest. The Plague in Its Stronghold, Tuberculosis in the New York Tenement. New York: Committee on the Prevention of Tuberculosis of the Charity Organization Society of the City of New York, 1903.


Lighting the Tree

 “2012 Rockefeller Center Tree Lighting at Rockefeller Center | Rockefeller Center.” Accessed November 28, 2012.

Armstrong, Nancy. The Rockefeller Center Christmas Tree: The History and Lore of the World’s Most Famous Evergreen. 2 edition. Kennebunkport, Me.: Cider Mill Press, 2009.

“Mayor Bloomberg and Jerry I. Speyer Announce First-Ever ‘Green’ Rockefeller Center Christmas Tree.” Accessed February 24, 2016.

Okrent, Daniel. Great Fortune: The Epic of Rockefeller Center. Reprint edition. New York: Penguin Books, 2004.

Silver, Harris. “The Rockefeller Center Christmas Tree: Not as Green as It Looks.” The Huffington Post, May 12, 2011.



 Boyd, M. F., and R. D. Coelho. “A Note on the Apparent Antagonism of a Bacterial Intoxication to a Plasmodial Infection.” American Journal of Tropical Medicine 29, no. 2 (March 1949): 199–202.

Hirsch, Jules. “The Rockefeller University Hospital (1910–2010): Creating the Science of Medicine.” Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 54, no. 3 (2011): 273–303. doi:10.1353/pbm.2011.0029.

Hoch, Paul, Ernest Kusch, and L. T. Coggeshall. “The Treatment of General Paresis with Malaria Induced by Injecting a Standard Small Number of Parasites.” American Journal of Psychiatry 97, no. 2 (September 1, 1940): 297–307. doi:10.1176/ajp.97.2.297.

“Mark F. Boyd Collection, University of Miami Libraries Digital Collections.” Mark F. Boyd Collection. Accessed February 24, 2016.

McKenzie, F. Ellis, Geoffrey M. Jeffery, and William E. Collins. “Plasmodium Malariae Blood-Stage Dynamics.” The Journal of Parasitology 87, no. 3 (2001): 626–37. doi:10.2307/3285103.

Ross, Lainie Friedman. “Useful Bodies: Humans in the Service of Medical Science in the Twentieth Century (review).” Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 48, no. 2 (2005): 312–14. doi:10.1353/pbm.2005.0062.

Slater, Leo Barney, and Margaret Humphreys. “Parasites and Progress: Ethical Decision-Making and the Santee-Cooper Malaria Study, 1944-1949.” Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 51, no. 1 (2008): 103–20. doi:10.1353/pbm.2008.0011.

Stapleton, Darwin H. “Historical Perspectives on Malaria: The Rockefeller Antimalaria Strategy in the 20th Century.” The Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine, New York 76, no. 5 (October 2009): 468–73. doi:10.1002/msj.20138.

“The Rockefeller University Hospital Centennial,” November 19, 2012.

Washington, Harriet A. Medical Apartheid: The Dark History of Medical Experimentation on Black Americans from Colonial Times to the Present. Doubleday, 2006.


Metropolis of Coffee

 Allhoff, Fritz, and Donald Schoenholt. Coffee – Philosophy for Everyone: Grounds for Debate. Edited by Scott F. Parker and Michael W. Austin. 1 edition. Chichester, West Sussex ; Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2011.

Ukers, William H. All About Coffee: A History of Coffee from the Classic Tribute to the World’s Most Beloved Beverage. Abridged edition. Avon, Massachusetts: Adams Media, 2012.


Minetta Brook

 Duncan, Stephan. “Modeling the Minetta Brook.” Scribd. Accessed February 24, 2016.

Hunt, Will. “Ghost River.” Paris Review Daily, January 23, 2012.

“Minetta Brook Out Again.” The New York Times, December 4, 1930.

“Minetta Brook’s Course.” The New York Times, March 27, 1901.

Sanderson, Eric. Mannahatta: A Natural History of New York City. New York; London: Harry N. Abrams, 2013.


Operation Midnight Climax

Jacobs, John. “The Diaries of a CIA Operative; Diaries of a Drug-Testing CIA Operative.” Washington Post, September 5, 1977.

Richards, Bill, and Jacobs, John. “Mind-Control Quartet Subpoenaed by Senate After No-Show.” Washington Post, August 6, 1977.


Pneumatic Subway

Campbell-Dollaghen, Kelsey. “How One Inventor Secretly Built a Pneumatic Subway Under NYC.” Gizmodo, August 13, 2013.

Daley, Robert. “Alfred Ely Beach and his Wonderful Pneumatic Underground Railway.” American Heritage, June 1961.

Most, Doug. The Race Underground. Saint Martin’s Press, 2014.



Rural TB Retreat

Veiller, Lawrence. “Map Showing Over-Crowding of Buildings on Lots and Consequent Lack of Light and Air Space Also the Prevalence of Tuberculosis, Typhoid Fever, Scarlet Fever and Diphtheria in the Tenement House District Bounded by Bowery, Willett Street, East Houston, Rivington Streets.” Tenement House Committee, Charity Organization Society of the City of New York, 1899.


Sandhogs, Fresh Air and the Holland Tunnel

“American Society of Civil Engineers Metropolitan Section – Holland Tunnel.” Accessed February 24, 2016.

Bjork, Kenneth. Saga In Steel And Concrete – Norwegian Engineers In America. Norwegian-American Historical Association, 1947.

Gray, Carl C., and Harold F. Hagen. The Eighth Wonder. B. F. Sturtevant Company, 1927.

“Holland Tunnel.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, February 16, 2016.


Spanish Flu

Aimone, Francesco. Interview. Washington D.C.

Crosby, Alfred W. America’s Forgotten Pandemic: The Influenza of 1918. Cambridge University Press, 2003.

“Health Head Calls Influenza Inquiry.” The New York Times, August 16, 1918.

Kellner, Arthur. New York Harbor: A Geographical and Historical Survey. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland, 2011.

“Liner Had 5 Deaths Due to Influenza.” The New York Times, August 18, 1918.

“No Quarantine Here Against Influenza.” The New York Times, August 15, 1918.

Pierce, Marcia M. “Pandemic of 1918.” AccessScience, McGraw-Hill Education, 2009.

“Spanish Influenza Here, Ship Men Say.” The New York Times, August 14, 1918.


Steam-fueled Skirmish

“American National Biography Online: Fitch, John.” Accessed February 24, 2016.

Over and Back: The History of Ferryboats in New York Harbor. New York: Fordham University Press, 1990.

Robert Fulton: A Biography. Lincoln, NE: iUniverse, 2003.


Telegraph Races

 John, Richard R. Interview. May 13, 2010.

“The Selling of Samuel Morse.” Invention and Technology, Spring 2010.

Silverman, Kenneth. Lightning Man: The Accursed Life Of Samuel F.B. Morse. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press, 2004.


The Doctors’ Riot

 Baker, Kevin. “A Nation’s Wild Start.” The New York Times, December 26, 2002.

Bell, W J. “Doctors’ Riot, New York, 1788.” Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine 47, no. 12 (December 1971): 1501–3.

Campbell, Denis. “Founders of British Obstetrics ‘Were Callous Murderers.’” The Guardian, February 6, 2010, sec. UK news.

de Costa, Caroline, and Francesca Miller. “American Resurrection and the 1788 New York Doctors’ Riot.” The Lancet 377, no. 9762 (January 2011): 292–93. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60083-4.

Hulkower, Raphael. “From Sacrilege to Privilege: The Tale of Body Procurement for Anatomical Dissection in the United States.” Einstein Journal of Biology & Medicine 27, no. 1 (March 2011): 23–26.

MacGregor, George. The History of Burke and Hare and of the Resurrectionist Times: A Fragment from the Criminal Annals of Scotland. Glasgow : T. D. Morison, 1884.

Medical Apartheid: The Dark History of Medical Experimentation on Black Americans from Colonial Times to the Present. Reprint edition. New York: Anchor, 2008.

Sherk, Henry H. David Hosack, MD, and Rutgers – The Politics of Medical Education in the Nineteenth Century. New Jersey Medicine, 2002.

Warner, John Harley, and Lawrence J. Rizzolo. “Anatomical Instruction and Training for Professionalism from the 19th to the 21st Centuries.” Clinical Anatomy 19, no. 5 (July 1, 2006): 403–14. doi:10.1002/ca.20290.


The Low Line

Barr, Johanna. “NYC Might Get This Massive Underground Park.” The Huffington Post, July 24, 2012.

“CB3 Asked to Weigh Low Line With Seward Park Project.” The Lo-Down: News from the Lower East Side. Accessed February 25, 2016.

Chan, Sewell. “Lower East Side Is Given ‘Endangered’ Designation.” The New York Times, May 21, 2008.

“Competing Capitalisms.” CUNY TV. Accessed February 25, 2016. //

Moynihan, Colin. “In Images, the Lower East Side of Starker Days.” The New York Times, February 18, 2008.


Walking the Line at Ellis Island

Bateman-House, Alison, and Amy Fairchild. “Medical Examination of Immigrants at Ellis Island.” Virtual Mentor 10, no. 4 (April 1, 2008): 235. doi:10.1001/virtualmentor.2008.10.4.mhst1-0804.

“Ellis Island.” Accessed February 25, 2016.

“Genealogy Tips – The Statue of Liberty & Ellis Island.” Liberty Ellis Foundation. Accessed February 25, 2016.

“Immigration Archives – A Summary of the Immigration Laws.” GG Archives Social and Cultural History. Accessed February 25, 2016.

“Immigration Archives – Historial Immigration, Documents, Images.” GG Archives Social and Cultural History. Accessed February 25, 2016.

“Immigration Archives – How Immigrants Are Inspected at Ellis Island circa 1903.” GG Archives Social and Cultural History. Accessed February 25, 2016.

“Immigration Archives – Mental Examinination Of Immigrants – 1917.” GG Archives Social and Cultural History. Accessed February 25, 2016.

“Policies of Inclusion.” Accessed February 25, 2016.

Smith, Eugene Waldo. Trans-Atlantic Passenger Ships, Past and Present. Boston, G. H. Dean Co, 1947.

“The Future of Our Past.” GG Archives Social and Cultural History. Accessed February 25, 2016.

United States Public Health Service. Book of Instructions for the Medical Inspection of Immigrants. G.P.O., 1903.

“Vintage Brochure – White Star Line Majestic: The World’s Largest Ship – 1922.” GG Archives Social and Cultural History. Accessed February 25, 2016.


When Hogs Ruled

 Alonso, Enrique, and Ana Recarte. “Pigs in New York City; a Study on 19 Th Century Urban ‘Sanitation.’” Friends of Thoreau Environmental Program, Research Institute of American Studies, University of Alcala, Spain, 2008.

Ashbrook, F. G., and J. D. Bebout. Disposal of City Garbage by Feeding to Hogs. Circular / U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Office of the Sectretary ;no. 80. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Office of the Secretary, 1917.

Burrows, Edwin G., and Mike Wallace. Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898. Oxford University Press, 2000.

Delmege, James Anthony. Towards National Health: Health and Hygiene in England from Roman to Victorian Times. New York: The Macmillan company, 1932.

Hartog, Hendrik. “Pigs and Positivism.” Wisconsin Law Review 1985 (1985): 899.

“Hog Law.” The New York Evening Post, April 6, 1825.

“Hog Law.” The New York Evening Post, September 7, 1826.

“Hogs.” The New York Evening Post, August 25, 1818.

“Hogs Again.” The New York Evening Post, September 10, 1818.

“Hogs at Large.” The New York Evening Post, May 21, 1821.

“Hogs Running at Large in the Streets.” The New York Evening Post, August 4, 1821.

Kiple, Kenneth F., and Kriemhild Coneè Ornelas. The Cambridge World History of Food. Cambridge University Press, 2000.

Kutler, Stanley I. Cholera” – Dictionary of American History. 3rd ed. Vol. 2. 10 vols. New York: Charles Scribners & Sons, 2002.

McNeur, Catherine. “The ‘Swinish Multitude’ Controversies over Hogs in Antebellum New York City.” Journal of Urban History 37, no. 5 (September 1, 2011): 639–60. doi:10.1177/0096144211407561.

Miller, Robert L. “Hogs and Hygiene.” The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 76 (1990): 125–40. doi:10.2307/3822012.

“Results of the War Upon the Piggeries.” The New York Times, September 20, 1859.

Rosenberg, Charles E. The Cholera Years: The United States in 1832, 1849, and 1866. 2nd edition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987.

The Encyclopedia of New York City. 2nd ed. New Haven : New York: Yale University Press, 2010.

Zarin, Daniel J. “Searching for Pennies in Piles of Trash: Municipal Refuse Utilization in the United States, 1870–1930.” Environmental History Review 11, no. 3 (September 21, 1987): 207–22. doi:10.2307/3984088.


Yellow Fever Fence

 Burrows, Edwin G., and Mike Wallace. Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898. Oxford University Press, 2000.

“Fighting Yellow Fever and Cholera, 1805-1865.” New York City Government Brochure. Accessed February 25, 2016.

Hardie, James. An Account of the Yellow Fever, Which Occurred in the City of New-York, in the Year 1822. Samuel Marks, 1822.

Heaton, Claude Edwin. “Yellow Fever in New York City.” Bulletin of the Medical Library Association 34, no. 2 (April 1946): 67–78.

Stokes, Issac Newton Phelps. The Iconography of Manhattan Island, 1498-1909,. R.H. Dodd, 1915.